Ground Preparation

For paving to look good and perform well for many years the preparation is essential. The digging-off, the getting rid of weeds and roots, the construction of a sound sub-base of crushed rock or hardcore, the use of geo-textiles and membranes. None of this is seen in the finished pavement, but without it, there’d be no finished pavement.


Most paving relies on the support, literally, of a sound sub-base, a layer of crushed aggregate that provides strength and load-bearing capability. This page goes through the hows, the whys, and the whats about sub-bases and sub-base materials.

Sub-bases Logo


The sub-grade layer of a pavement is, essentially, the underlying ground. It is also known as the "Formation Level", which can be defined as the level at which excavation ceases and construction starts. This page aims to explain all.

Sub-grades Logo

Sodden Sub-Layers

Saturated, sodden and submerged, how can construction work progress when the weather is bad and the site lies hidden beneath a pool of water? This page looks at what can be done when the sub-grade, or sub-base, is flooded.

Sodden Sub-Layers Logo

Aggregates for Paving and Drainage

In common with the rest of the construction industry, the paving and drainage trades are heavily dependent on the use of all sorts of aggregates. This page provides an overview of the principal aggregates used within the industry, with definitions and guidance on how they should be used.

Aggregates for Paving and Drainage Logo

Sub-base Aggregates

It may seem that almost anything can be used to construct a sub-base. Some talk of Type 1 or MOT, some of hardcore, and others of 804 or planings. What's best and what should be avoided? How can this maze of choices and muddle of options possibly be navigated? This page aims to cut through the mist and make things a little clearer.

Sub-base Aggregates Logo


An overview of the myriad options available as geo-synthetics, what benefits they bring to pavement construction and the most effective methods of use. The page covers particularly geo-textiles, landscape fabrics, geo-matrices and geo-grids.

Geo-synthetics Logo

Landscape Fabrics

Landscape fabrics should only ever be used as weed-suppressing membranes. They are most definitely NOT construction grade geo-textiles, but they are all-too-often credited with such capabilities. This page looks at their uses and their limitations.

Landscape Fabrics Logo